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Nordic skiing is a total body movement, where arms with the poles and legs are used for propulsion. The entire torso and shoulder muscles play a stabilizing and dynamic function. For this reason cross-country skiing uses more muscle groups than almost any other sport. As the principal movement is sliding, cross-country skiing is a particularly low impact sport which simultaneously trains a number of coordination skills such as balance, rhythm, etc.  Cross-country skiing is even ideal for strengthening the cardiovascular system. From children to senior citizens, this sport can easily be learned and practiced.

The motion by cross-country skiing is basically possible in two styles: the classic technique and the skating technique. The classic technique is run along parallel grooves, the skating technique on smooth surfaces. Skis with scales or grip wax (hard wax or Klister) are required for the leg kick in the classic technique. For the skating technique shorter skis are used, which are prepared solely with a gliding wax.

As an introduction to cross-country skiing the classic technique is usually preferred. If experience of skiing, ice skating or in-line skating is present, it is possible to start with the skating technique.



Warm up

Familiarisation exercises

First movement experiences


Classic Technique

Diagonal stride on flat ground - double pole push – side-step - Parallel (indirect) track change – herringbone step

Braking, downhill and cornering technique

Parallel downhill - plough – one-sided plough

Skating technique

Skating step without poles - diagonal skating stride - asymmetric 2:1 stroke - slow side change


Classic Technique

Diagonal uphill strides - double pole push with intermediate step – direct track change – technique changes 

Braking, downhill and cornering technique

Snowplough turn – stepping turn active/passive

Skating Technik

1 :1 stroke - symmetrical 2:2 stroke - faster lane change – technique changes - half skating step


Classic technique

Jumping herringbone step – double pole sprinting

Braking, downhill and cornering technique

Running turn - more cornering technique

Skating technique

Asymmetric 2:2 stroke jump – 1:1 stroke sprint